Throughout the history of Christianity, the issue of whether salvation is accomplished through faith alone or through a combination of faith plus good works has long been debated. Today, the Roman Catholic faith, the world’s largest Christian denomination, maintains that works are required in addition to faith for salvation. This misconception is also held by Islam, the world’s second largest religion next to Christianity. In addition, it is a teaching of cults such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and every impostor of biblical Christianity the author is aware of. To find the clear answer to this issue, one must set aside human philosophy and self-righteousness and go to the court of final arbitration—God’s Word.
To demonstrate His deserved glory, the Lord has provided a clear answer on the subject. Many passages can be used to defend the doctrine of salvation through grace alone. However, the Holy Spirit has graciously provided a precise apologetic in the book of Romans. This paper will focus on an apologetic of faith alone with a primary focus on verses found in the book of Romans. Complementary passages from other books of the Bible will be discussed so the issue can be analyzed as a whole. The terms justification and grace will be discussed. This paper will also address the commonly cited passage in James, chapter two, used to defend the position that works are required for salvation.
God’s Laws and Man’s Guilt
As a prelude to assessing salvation, one must first address the need for a Savior. In Romans 3 the Apostle Paul makes it clear that all people are to come under the judgment of God. Romans 3:5-6 states, “Is God unjust who inflicts wrath? (I speak as a man). Certainly not!” Then Romans 3:9 states that all people are under sin—both Jew and Greek (Gentile). To further address those who are self-righteous the Word of God states: “Now we know that whatever the law says, it says to those who are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God” (Rom. 3:19).
The law is often thought of as the rules and regulations about personal conduct and worshipping God in the Old Testament.1 Charles Ryrie explains that an understanding of the law “depends on what period of human history you are thinking about. Law in the Garden of Eden was one thing; law in the time of Abraham consisted of certain specific ordinances and statutes (Gen. 26:5). In the time of Moses, the law was contained in the 613 commandments of the Mosaic code which God gave through him to the Israelites. Today law means the hundreds of specific commandments of the New Testament.”2 Ryrie also summarizes the New Testament commandments and principles by stating that they “stem from the one all-inclusive principle of 1 Corinthians 10:31: “Whether, then, you eat or drink or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God” and “Sin is coming short of the glory of God.”3
Scripture makes it clear that nonbelievers are accountable to the law. Romans 2:12 states, “For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law, and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law.” As MacArthur comments, “The Gentiles who never had the opportunity to know God’s moral law will be judged on their disobedience in relationship to their limited knowledge.”4 God has given each human a conscience, meaning all people have knowledge of what is right and wrong. Romans 2:14-15 states: “For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves: which show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and [their] thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another.” In other words, nonbelievers know the difference between right and wrong.
A key term found in the book of Romans is justification. The understanding of this legal term is critical, for it is a simultaneous act of God at the moment of salvation. One cannot have salvation without justification, for without justification a sinner is unable to be righteous in “God’s courtroom” and have his sins pardoned. By His perfect nature God must judge and punish sin. Easton’s Bible Dictionary has a well-rounded definition and explanation:
A forensic term, opposed to condemnation. As regard to its nature, it is the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as conformed to all its demands. In addition to the pardon of sin, justification declares that all the claims of the law are satisfied in respect of the justified. It is the acts of a judge and not of a sovereign. The law is not relaxed or set aside, but is declared to be fulfilled in the strictest sense; and so the person justified is declared to be entitled to all the advantages and rewards arising from perfect obedience to the law. It proceeds on the imputing or crediting to the believer by God himself of the perfect righteousness, active and passive, of his Representative and Surety, Jesus Christ (Rom. 10:3-9). Justification is not the forgiveness of a man without righteousness, but a declaration that he possesses a righteousness which perfectly and forever satisfies the law, namely, Christ’s righteousness. The sole condition on which this righteousness is imputed or credited to the believer is faith in or on the Lord Jesus Christ. Faith is called a “condition,” not because it possesses any merit, but only because it is the instrument by which the soul appropriates or apprehends Christ and his righteousness. 5
Romans Chapter Three
In Romans 3:20 one finds a clear reference to the fact that works do not justify. It is God’s grace that justifies. A sinner can be declared righteous by God only through His grace. Thus, the believer is no longer considered guilty for rebelling against God’s authority (the breaking of God’s laws). Robert Mounce states:
Paul had now made his case. People have turned from the knowledge of God revealed in creation and degraded themselves. The Jew, who has the law, has not obeyed the law and is therefore no better off than the Gentile. Both Jew and Gentile fall under the condemnation of sin. Is there hope? In the verses that follow we will be introduced to the righteousness of God, a righteousness that has nothing to do with our performance but everything to do with God’s provision in Christ.6
Next, in Romans 3:24 Paul states the justification of the sinner by God, “being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus” (emphasis added). The author would like to point out that the italicized phrase “freely by His grace” is a clear reference that salvation requires no human work. The editors of A Handbook on Paul’s Letter to the Romans comment, “The word ‘free gift’ indicates that man contributes nothing toward being put in a right relationship with God, while the phrase ‘by God’s grace’ indicates that God supplies all that is necessary.”7 The author notes that the completion of Romans 3:24 clarifies this free gift is “through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus.”
Paul speaks directly to those (mainly Jewish-Christians) that maintain works are involved in justification and thus salvation in Romans 3:27. “Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law? of works? No: but by the law of faith.” D. A. Carson gives further insight:
In the discussion style he so favours in Romans, Paul moves his argument along with another question: ‘Where, then, is boasting?’ Paul probably asks this question with Jews particularly in mind. As Paul notes elsewhere, Jews had a tendency to rely upon their works as the basis for their relationship with God (9:30-10:3; cf. Phil. 3:2-9). The provision of God’s righteousness ‘apart from the law’ and through faith in Jesus Christ (21-22) reveals the foolishness of such pride in accomplishment. It is excluded, Paul claims, through the principle . . . of faith.8
To complete his idea in verse 27, Paul states in Romans 3:28, “Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith apart from the deeds of the law.” Insightful commentary from the Nelson Study Bible states, “No matter what we do, we cannot earn our salvation. God alone saves, and His salvation is a free gift. No one can stand before God and boast of their good deeds. God is the only One who is righteous, and for this reason He should be praised.”9
Romans Chapter Four
The Apostle Paul continues his apologetic of salvation by faith alone in Romans 4. Using the patriarch Abraham as an example, Paul writes, “For if Abraham were justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God” (Rom. 4:2). Paul is pointing out that Abraham’s works had nothing to do with his justification. MacArthur states, “If Abraham’s own works had been the basis of his justification, he would have had every right to boast in God’s presence. That makes the hypothetical premise of verse 2 unthinkable.”10 Paul then uses Scripture from the Old Testament to bolster his claim of salvation through faith alone by quoting Genesis 15:6 in Romans 4:3, “Abraham believed; God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.” The commentators of a Dictionary of Paul and His Letters state, “This believing could be only trust in God, confidence in God’s power alone, that and nothing more–faith, not faithfulness. The faith called for in the gospel is precisely the same faith in the life-giving power of God.”11
In Romans 4:4 Paul makes an astounding statement, “Now to him who works, the wages are not counted as grace but as debt.” This is referring to the fact that if salvation were earned, then that means God owed salvation for the repayment of a debt He had incurred. This of course is contrary to Scripture. Conner comments:
Therefore, if Abraham worked for salvation (to be justified), then God was in debt to Abraham. God owed him a reward. But Abraham was not justified by works or by the law of works (Rom. 3:27). He should not, and did not, earn salvation, justification, or right standing with God. God was not indebted to Abraham, and neither is God indebted to any of Abraham’s race. God did not have to reward Abraham at all. Neither can the Jew work to be justified. It is of grace, through faith, that one is justified and accounted righteous. It is not of law or of works. Note the theme: grace or works–one or the other, but not both (Rom. 11:6). 12
Paul then finishes with a complementary statement of faith alone accomplishes salvation in Romans 4:5, “But to him who does not work but believes on Him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is accounted for righteousness, just as David also describes the blessedness of the man to whom God imputes righteousness apart from works (emphasis added).” The Apostle Paul is emphasizing that it is the one who believes in Christ who receives salvation as opposed to those who try to earn salvation through works. The verse finishes with Paul pointing out that Old Testament saints were saved the same way as saints were in the New Testament era. That is, solely by the grace of God! David, as with all saints, had the righteousness of God imputed to him apart from his own works. It was the work of Christ on the cross that allowed God’s righteousness to be credited (imputed) to sinners.
harles Swindoll has some powerful words in regard to those who maintain works are involved in the salvation process:
What seems so right is, in fact, heresy–the one I consider the most dangerous heresy on earth. What is it? The emphasis on what we do for God, instead of what God does for us. Some are so convinced of the opposite, they would argue nose to nose. They are often the ones who claim that their favorite verse of Scripture is “God helps those who help themselves” (which doesn’t appear in the Bible). Talk about killing grace! The fact is, God helps the helpless, the undeserving, those who don’t measure up, those who fail to achieve His standard. Nevertheless, the heresy continues louder now than ever in history. Most people see themselves as “masters” of their own fate, “captains” of their own souls. It’s an age-old philosophy deeply ingrained in the human heart. And why not? It supports humanity’s all-time favorite subject: self. 13
In Romans 4:16 Paul reiterates that justification is through faith alone. The verse says, “Therefore it is of faith that it might be according to grace.” This concept of righteousness credited to believing sinners is expanded in Romans 4:24-25, “It shall be imputed to us who believe in Him who raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead, who was delivered up because of our offenses, and was raised because of our justification.”
Romans Chapter Five
The first two verses of Romans 5 summarize our justification and thus peace with God. “Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand.” Sproul comments, “With peace established, we now have access to God’s presence. The wall of partition has been removed. This peace is not a guarded truce subject to new warfare. It is a permanent peace.”14 This grace believers stand and rejoice in is their position in Christ, not of any works.15
The Cross Work of Christ and the shedding of His blood is what justifies and saves the repentant believer.16 “Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him” (Rom. 5:9). Next, in verse 10 Paul notes again it is not of human effort but, “we shall be saved by His life.” This is in reference to the resurrection life of Jesus Christ.17
Justification, and thus salvation, are free gifts. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines free as, “having no obligations (as to work) or commitments” and gift as “something voluntarily transferred by one person to another without compensation.” Romans 5:15-18 refers to the free gift of righteousness given to the believing sinner by God. “But the free gift is not like the offense. For if by the one man’s offense many died, much more the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the One Man, Jesus Christ, abounded to many” (Rom. 5:15). The free gift resulted in justification, as in Romans 5:16: ”but the free gift which came from many offenses resulted in justification.”
Commenting on God’s grace and free gift, Mounce states, “Adam’s sin led to the death of the entire human race. Since that is so, what should be said about the gift of God given freely in Jesus Christ? How much more “indicates that its effect is vastly greater for all humans. God’s grace is infinitely greater for good than Adam’s sin is for evil.”18
Romans Chapter Six
This idea of a free gift continues in Romans 6:23, “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” This correlates precisely with Ephesians 2:8-9, “For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, not of works, lest anyone should boast.” It is the author’s contention that no Scripture is clearer than Ephesians 2:8-9. The verses reviewed in Romans provide a strong anchor to this truth of salvation apart from works.
Complementary to this idea of works not being involved in justification and salvation is Galatians 2:16. The verse reads, “knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law but by faith in Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, that we might be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the law; for by the works of the law no flesh shall be justified.” Martin Luther comments, “We do not mean to say that the Law is bad. Only it is not able to justify us. To be at peace with God, we have need of a far better mediator than Moses or the Law. We must know that we are nothing. We must understand that we are merely beneficiaries and recipients of the treasures of Christ.”19 Paul could write no clearer summary of who gets the credit in justification: “It is God who justifies” (Rom. 9:33).
The Apostle Peter describes the heavenly inheritance of believers according to God’s “abundant mercy” in 1 Peter 1:3. Peter then goes on to write in 1 Peter 1:5 about our Lord who not only saved us but keeps us saved: “who are kept by the power of God through faith for salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.” Peter is in complete agreement with Paul and the rest of Scripture that works play no role in our salvation.
Romans Chapter Eleven
Referring to the nation of Israel that had rejected Jesus, Paul notes that a remnant of them had come to faith in Christ by God’s grace. He writes, “Even so then, at this present time there is a remnant according to the election of grace. And if by grace, then it is no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work” (Rom. 11:5-6). MacArthur writes, “Human effort and God’s grace are mutually exclusive ways to salvation.”20 The Apostle Paul was demonstrating that salvation is birthed from God’s grace. To claim any works are involved nullifies the crucifixion, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, as well as the Word of God, which explicitly and repeatedly claims it is through faith alone.
What Real Grace Is
Grace is a critical term used in the New Testament in regard to salvation. For example, the author quoted its use in Romans 11:5-6 and Ephesians 2:8. Both are proof that salvation is of faith alone by God’s grace. Since grace is so essential to salvation, it is necessary to delve deeper into its meaning. Grace is often defined by theologians as “unmerited favor.” Chafer notes:
When used in the Bible to set forth the grace of God in the salvation of sinners, the word grace discloses not only the boundless goodness and kindness of God toward man, but reaches far beyond and indicates the supreme motive which actuated God in the creation, preservation and consummation of the universe. What greater fact could be expressed by one word? The meaning of the word grace, as used in the New Testament, is not unlike its meaning as employed in common speech, but for one important exception, namely, in the Bible the word often represents that which is limitless, since it represents the realities which are infinite and eternal. It is nothing less than the unlimited love of God expressing itself in measureless grace. . . . Grace means pure unrecompensed kindness and favor. What is done in grace is done graciously. From this exact meaning there can be no departure; otherwise grace ceases to be grace.21
Later in his book, Grace, Lewis Sperry Chafer writes, “If the supreme motive of God is to reveal His grace, then salvation must be by grace alone, or the eternal purpose of God must fail. . . . On no other basis can grace be manifested than be salvation which is wholly unrelated to human merit or works.22 Dr. Cloud and Dr. Townsend contend that grace is unmerited favor that “means God is for us and not against us” and that “His favor cannot be earned. He will freely give us things we cannot provide for ourselves.” 23
What James Really Meant by Works
Those who hold to the notion that salvation requires some degree of human work generally cite one passage in their support. This is in reference to the second chapter of James and usually involves James 2:14, 2:17, 2:21, 2:24, and 2:26.
First, for the Apostle James to teach that works are a necessary part of salvation would be to contradict the whole of Scripture. For example, the Apostle Paul’s stance on this position is clear in the books of Romans, Galatians, and Ephesians. It would be inconceivable that the Word of God would contain contradictory statements, since it is written under divine inspiration (2 Tim. 3:16). Instead, the author would argue that Scripture is not contradictory on this topic, but the ability to read the Bible for all its worth by some men is in question. In addition, some would rather submit their theology to the tradition of men rather than the inerrant truth of Scripture.
James 2:14 states, “What does it profit, my brethren, if someone says he has faith but does not have works? Can faith save him?” The answer to this question is answered in 2:17: “Thus also faith by itself, if it does not have works, is dead.” James is simply stating that a true faith will result in good works. Hanegraaff explains, “First, in context James does not teach that we are saved by works but by the kind of faith that produces good works.”24 One would expect a true convert to Christianity to demonstrate the fruits of their new nature. As written in 2 Corinthians 5:17, “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; old things have passed away; behold, all things have become new.” The same idea is found in James 2:16, which says, “For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also.” Again, just as a true believer must have the Holy Spirit indwelling them (1 Cor. 6:19), the same holds true that a true convert will demonstrate works from their new nature and obedience to the Spirit.
A very interesting verse is James 2:21, which reads, “Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered Isaac his son on the altar?” The author discussed earlier Romans 4:2, in which Paul demonstrated that Abraham was not saved by works but by faith alone (Gen. 15:6).25 Do these verses then contradict each another? No! James is saying that Abraham was justified by works before men (not God) thirty years after he was saved through faith and accounted righteous before God (Gen. 15:6). Abraham demonstrated his faith to men through the work of offering his son Isaac. This is in complete harmony with what James is focusing on, that a true faith will result in good works. Hanegraaff gives further insight, “James is countering the false assertion that a said faith is a substitute for a saving faith, while Paul is countering the equally fallacious notion that salvation can be earned by observing the law.”26
The summary by Spence-Jones is quite balanced and insightful into the verses by James which speak of works:
One of the most fruitful sources of discussion and strife among Christians has been the selection of particular passages of Scripture and building doctrines upon them, without at all considering what other passages of Scripture may have to say on the same subject. Truth is many-sided. Two views, which appear contradictory, may both be right. There may be an element of truth in both; and they may both be different sides of the same truth. The statements of Paul and James on the subject of justification are an instance of this. They appear at first sight contradictory, but they are in reality two sides of the same great truth. This great truth is justification by Jesus Christ. One side of this truth is found in the words of St. Paul, “A man is justified by faith without the deeds of the Law;” that is to say, faith in Jesus Christ is sufficient to justify a man in God’s sight. That is very true, says James, but let us be sure that we have a real faith. There is no real faith except works go along with it. Thus James brings out his side of the truth: “You see then how that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only.” It is the exaggeration of this latter truth that mainly divides the Roman Catholic Church from the Protestant Church as a whole. This exaggeration was the immediate origin of the Reformation. Instead of teaching men to put their faith in Christ, the Church of Rome taught them to place their confidence in their own good works. By the performance of certain penances and mortifications merit was laid up for them in heaven. By the payment of certain sums of money absolution was obtained for past sins. Clearly this was very far from being the teaching of Scripture. Then Martin Luther arose, and, in words that soon rang throughout all Europe, proclaimed the doctrine of justification by faith. It was time that a check should be placed on the progress of error; that men should be taught to rest their hopes of salvation no longer on a priest, on works of merit, or on sums of money, but on the Lord Jesus Christ. On the other hand, the doctrine of justification by faith has been so much insisted on that there has sometimes been a neglect of good works. This error has not been committed by any Protestant Church as a whole, in its formal teaching at any rate, for all the reformed Churches have insisted on the necessity of good works and a holy life as the evidence and fruit of true faith.27
Lastly, the author would ask those who hold to the notion that works are required for salvation these questions, “What work(s) could one ever do that would satisfy God’s standard of righteousness and holiness in addition to the death, burial and resurrection of Christ?” Also, “What work did the criminal on the cross beside Jesus do as a work to merit salvation?” (Luke 23:40-43).
The plain teaching of Scripture is that God is our Savior. He alone gets the credit for our salvation. Hebrews 13:20 tells us of the blood of the everlasting covenant. As Dr. Hare aptly explains, “God the Father made a covenant with His Son to come to earth to shed His blood for the sins of the world. He would be resurrected and through Him salvation provided. We are beneficiaries of that covenant.”28 Salvation is provided freely to the believing sinner by God’s grace. Scripture is clear from the Old Testament through the New Testament that salvation is by faith alone. Any philosophy or doctrine that requires works is unbiblical and reflects a work righteous heresy. A true conversion should be exemplified by good works that are a testimony to one’s new nature in Christ. The book of Romans is indeed a divine apologetic for the doctrine of salvation by faith alone.
1 Brian Moulton, Pneumatology and Christian Life Course Notes (El Cajon, CA: Southern California Seminary, 2006), 32.
2 Charles C. Ryrie, Balancing the Christian Life (Chicago, IL: Moody, 1994), 31.
4 MacArthur Study Bible, annotated by John MacArthur (Dallas, TX: Word, 1997), 1695.
5 M. G. Easton, Easton’s Bible Dictionary (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1996).
6 Robert H. Mounce, Romans (The New American Commentary) [electronic version] (Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 2001), S. 111
7 Barclay Moon Newman and Eugene Albert Nida, A Handbook on Paul’s Letter to the Romans, United Bible Societies’ New Testament Handbook Series (NY: United Bible Societies, 1994), S. 66.
8 D. A. Carson, New Bible Commentary: 21st Century-Edition, 4th ed. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1994), S. Ro. 3:27.
9 Nelson Study Bible: New King James Version. Annotated by Earl D. Radmacher, Ronald Barclay Allen, and H. Wayne House (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1997), S. Ro. 3:28.
10 MacArthur, 1699.
11 Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin, and Daniel G. Reid, Dictionary of Paul and His Letters (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity 1993), 846.
12 Kevin J. Conner, The Epistle to the Romans: A Commentary (Portland, OR: City Bible Publishing, 1999), 132.
13 Charles R. Swindoll, The Grace Awakening (Dallas, TX: Word, 1990), 19.
14 R. C. Sproul, The Reformation Study Bible (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 2005), 1620.
15 George W. Hare, Analysis of Romans Course Oral Notes (El Cajon, CA: Southern California Seminary, 2008).
18 Mounce, 144.
19 Martin Luther, Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians (1535) – Chapter 2 (7/12), 2004. Available Biblical Proportions website http://www.biblicalproportions.com/modules/wfsection/article.php?articleid=21&page=6. Accessed June 21, 2008.
20 MacArthur, 1714.
21 Lewis Sperry Chafer, Grace (Chicago, IL; Moody Press, 1943), 3.
22 Ibid., 36.
23 Henry Cloud and John Townsend, How People Grow: What the Bible Reveals about Personal Growth (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001), 66.
24 Hank Hanegraaff, The Bible Answer Book Volume 2 (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2006), 53.
25 George W. Hare, Analysis of General Epistles Course Oral Notes (El Cajon, CA: Southern California Seminary, 2007).
26 Hanegraaff, 54.
27 H. D. M. Spence-Jones, ed., The Pulpit Commentary: Romans (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, 2004), S. 93.
28 George W. Hare, Analysis of Pauline Epistles Course Oral Notes (El Cajon, CA: Southern California Seminary, 2007).
Carson, D. A. New Bible Commentary, 21st-Century Edition (4th ed.). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, S. Ro. 3:27, 1994.
Chafer, Lewis Sperry. Grace. Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1943.
Cloud, Henry, and John Townsend. How People Grow: What the Bible Reveals about Personal Growth. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001.
Conner, Kevin J. The Epistle to the Romans: A Commentary. Portland, OR: City Bible Publishing, 1999.
Easton, M. G. Easton’s Bible Dictionary. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1996.
Grudem, Wayne. Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994.
Hanegraaff, Hank. The Bible Answer Book Volume 2. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2006.
Hare, George D. Analysis of General Epistles Notes. El Cajon, CA: Southern California Seminary, 2008.
Hare, George D. Analysis of Romans Notes. El Cajon, CA: Southern California Seminary, 2008.
Hawthorne, Gerald F., Ralph P. Martin, and Daniel G. Reid. Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993.
Luther, Martin. Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians (1535) – Chapter 2 (7/12), 2004. Retrieved June 21, 2008, from http://www.biblicalproportions.com/modules/wfsection/article.php?articleid=21&page=6
MacArthur Study Bible. Annotated by John MacArthur. Dallas, TX: Word, 1997.
Moulton, Brian K. Pneumatology and Christian Life Course Notes. El Cajon, CA: Southern California Seminary, 2006.
Mounce, Robert H. (2001). Romans (The New American Commentary) [Electronic version]. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, S. 111.
Nelson Study Bible: New King James Version. Annotated by Earl D. Radmacher, Ronald Barclay Allen, and H. Wayne House. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1997.
Newman, Barclay Moon, and Eugene Albert Nida. A Handbook on Paul’s Letter to the Romans, United Bible Societies’ New Testament Handbook Series. NY: United Bible Societies, 1994, S. 66.
Radmacher, Earl D., Ronald Barclay Allen, & House, H. Wayne. The Nelson Study Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1997, S. Ro. 3:28.
Ryrie, Charles C. Balancing the Christian Life. Chicago, IL: Moody, 1994.
Spence-Jones, H. D. M., ed. The Pulpit Commentary: Romans. Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, 2004, S. 93.
Sproul, R. C. The Reformation Study Bible. Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2005.
Swindoll, Charles R. The Grace Awakening. Dallas, TX: Word, 1990.