Islam believes that Jesus is one of the great prophets of Islam, just like Abraham and Moses. However, similar to all religions, He is solely a messenger and a mortal man according to the Qur’an. If we can understand the Muslim view of Jesus then we will be able to dialogue with them more effectively.
Islamic theology heavily stresses the unity of God and is strongly anti-Trinitarian. Surah 4:171 says that, “The Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, was but a messenger of Allah… (A)nd do not say, “Three”; desist it is better for you. Indeed, Allah is but one God. Exalted is He above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens ad whatever is on the earth…” In addition, Surah 5:73,75 reaffirms that Allah is not “the third of three” and that the Messiah was solely a messenger.
The Qur’an also misrepresents the Trinity, as it declares in Surah 5:73 that, “They have certainly disbelieved who say, “Allah is the third of three.” And there is no god but God.” The Christian position has always been that there is one God (Isaiah 44:6, James 2:19, etc.). So it appears the Muslim presupposition is that there are three gods that make up the Trinity. This is incorrect (and would actually be the Mormon Trinity which is not Biblical). The Bible is clear in that in the one God that is YAWHEH, there exists three persons who are all co-eternal, co-distinct, and co-equal. Thus the Islamic interpretation is rendered fallacious.
In regards to Jesus’s relationship with Allah, the Qur’an explicitly states that Allah has no son (Surah 4:171). Interestingly, however, the Muslims affirm that Jesus was born of the virgin Mary (Surah 19:20), but deny his divine sonship with God. Since Jesus had no earthly father but was conceived through Allah’s power, it would suggest that Jesus had divine origins. In addition, the Qur’an commits a crucial historical error by saying that Jesus was not crucified (Surah 4:157). The Qur’an says that Allah deceived those present at the crucifixion and made someone who looked like Jesus to be crucified instead. Surah 4:158 says that, “Rather, Allah raised him (Jesus) to Himself.” Now, why would Allah do this? Part of the reason is because Allah is deceptive. This is seen in texts such as Surah 3:54, as Allah tricked those who were to crucify Jesus and Jesus’ disciples because “Allah is the best of planners.” Note: some translations use the word “schemers” instead of planners1. Thus Allah purposefully deceived the Jews and Romans into thinking that Jesus was crucified, which is ironic since Jesus was a prophet from Allah! The Islamic view of God is evidently far different than the Christian view.
The devil typically attacks two things in the Bible: who Jesus was and what He did. As we have seen from the Qur’an (which was written over 500 years after the New Testament), it diminishes who Jesus was by ascribing him the role of a mortal prophet instead of the eternal Son of God who was divine. It also tries to abolish the fact that Jesus was crucified and died on the cross for the sins of the world. We can tell that this is not divinely inspired teaching because Jesus’s crucifixion under Pontius Pilate is affirmed by: the Gospels, Paul, Josephus, and Tacitus to name a few. Even liberal scholars such as Bart Ehrman and John Dominic Crossan adhere to this.
As believers and ambassadors of Jesus Christ, we must be prepared to always give a reasonable defense of our faith with gentleness and respect ( 1 Peter 3:15). In addition, we need to tear down arguments against God and build them back up for Christ (2 Corinthians 10:5). Knowing more about religions such as Islam will help us to better evangelize with those who are not familiar with our worldview.
 Quran.com. Accessed June 8,2016 at http://quran.com/3/54.